Alma Allred wrote a chapter in the book titled Black and Mormon. On page 37, he states:
I don’t believe that LDS scripture allows for a restriction against blacks’ holding the priesthood. Nor do I think that LDS theology can reasonably maintain that today’s blacks are descendants of Cain or that ancient intermarriage with Canaanites perpetuated any racial curse. Too many scriptures collide with those ideas for them to be valid.
I found this perspective intriguing and had to learn more.
LDS people have often believed that marriage to Canaanites (who were believed to be black) excluded one from the priesthood. Yet Allred notes that intermarriage between blacks and white occurred routinely over centuries. He notes intermarriage occurred in diverse cultures including Egypt, Portugal and the Greco-Roman world. He notes a problem with LDS interpretations of scriptures. From page 40,
Secondly, even though the terms Canaanite and Negro have been used interchangeably in the LDS Church, Canaanites weren’t black and they certainly weren’t African. Biblically, Canaanites descended from Canaan, the fourth son of Ham. African blacks are generally believed to be descendants of Cush, the first son of Ham. This is important because the Canaanites were those who have been referred to as the “cursed” lineage while practically nothing is said about Ham’s other children. It was Canaan who was cursed by Noah–not specifically Ham and not Ham’s other children. According to Genesis, Noah cursed Canaan after Ham saw his father naked and drunk and ridiculed his father to his other brothers (Gen. 9:21-25). Before this time, Ham had been righteous: “And Noah and his sons hearkened unto the Lord, and gave heed and they were called the sons of God.” (Moses 8:13). This scripture appears in the Pearl of Great Price, which also contains this statement: “And thus Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord; for Noah was a just man, and perfect in his generation; and he walked with God, as did also his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth (Moses 8:27; italics mine).
These verses are particularly important because Mormon folklore contains the common belief that Ham wrongly married a descendant of Cain, bringing a curse upon himself and his descendants. If such a commandment forbidding marriage into Cain’s lineage existed, how could Ham have contracted such a marriage and still have been considered righteous enough to get passage on the ark? The answer has always been that Cain’s genes needed to be preserved; but this argument does not address the fact that Ham was righteous and “walked with God” after his marriage–a circumstance that, according to tradition, was impossible.
Although Canaan was not born until after the flood, there is a land of Canaan referred to in Moses 7:7 before the flood. There is also a land of Cainan. It is likely that both are variant spellings of the same word and refer to the same land. This is because the Book of Moses was dictated by Joseph Smith and the two terms are homophones. The decision to spell the antediluvian land “Canain” was entirely editorial. Enoch came from the land of Cainan and called it “a land of righteousness unto this day” (Moses 6:42). In Moses 7:4-8, Enoch sees a vision of the world “for the space of many generations.” He describes how the people of Canaan (Cainan?) destroy the people of Shum. Â After this, we are told the land is cursed with heat and that a blackness comes upon all the children of Canaan–it was not inherited from Cain.15
Allred continues further with this reasoning, and notes that on page 42,
Why curse Canaan for his father’s actions?….LDS theology affirms that children who repent are not punished for their ancestor’s faults.
He then quotes the 2nd article of faith, and notes some contradictions. There are some spurious sources that claimed that Joseph Smith said that Cain could not hold the priesthood because he killed Abel. However, if murder is the disqualifier, then all murderers should be disqualified.
If priesthood was withheld from Africans because their ancestor [Cain] was a murderer, why were King David’s descendants allowed the priesthood, for he too was a murderer? Why are not white sons of murderers kept from the priesthood?
The Book of Abraham states that a descendant of Canaan discovered the land of Egypt and that all the Egyptians are descended from Canaan:
Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham, and was a partaker of the blood of Canaanites by birth.
From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land. Â (Abraham 1:21-22)
The problem that is immediately apparent is the fact that Abraham and Joseph each married an Egyptian woman. One response offered to counter that damaging evidence has been that the Egyptians at the time of these marriages were Semitic Hyksos who had conquered Egypt and so were not really Canaanites. This explanation contradicts Abraham 1:21-22. It also contradicts history. The Hyksos held power in Egypt for a maximum of only one hundred fifty years. If they were Egyptians during Abraham’s lifetime, it is not possible for them to still have been in power in Joseph’s day.18
On page 43, Allred notes that Hugh Nibley said that Asenath
“was the daughter of the high priest of Heliopolis and hence of the pure line of Ham; she was also the wife of Joseph and the mother of our own vaunted ancestor Ephraim.”20 Ephraim, son of a Canaanite mother, acquired the birthright by blessing from his grandfather Jacob. According to LDS theology, the impact of this blessing cannot be underestimated. The birthright was the right to preside in the priesthood, as will be explained later.
Allred continues to note other discrepancies about Canaanites in the Bible, and notes that Canaanites sometimes married Israelites–the Canaanite harlot Rahab was saved in Jericho, and is an ancestor of Jesus. (Matt 1:5) Allred notes that Edomites (Canaanites) were allowed in the the congregation of Israel (Deut. 23:7-8) Moses also married an Ethiopian woman. From the Bible, Allred concludes on page 45,
Little doubt remains that intermarriage between Canaanites and Israelites destroyed any chance for a pure, non-Canaanite race among the chosen seed. One third of the house of Judah is Canaanite with an unknown portion among the other tribes. What then can we make of the curse pronounced by Noah and of Abraham’s comments about Pharaoh’s lineage could not have the ‘right of the priesthood’? (Abr. 1:27). It may be that Mormons have simply misunderstood those passages of scripture.
Regarding Abraham 1:27, Allred says it was Abraham that had the right to preside over the priesthood, rather than Pharaoh. He notes that Joseph and his son Ephraim had the right to preside even though they weren’t of the Tribe of Levi. From page 45,
even though the priesthood did not remain exclusively with Ephraim, the right to preside did. Moses presided over Israel even though he was of the tribe of Levi. Joseph Smith, however, claimed to be the “lawful heir” because he was of the tribe of Ephraim (D&C 86:8-11). Since this authority was passed from father to only one son, when Noah gave it to Shem, Ham could not be the heir. Ham and Japheth, together with their descendants, did not have the right to administer the priesthood because it was given to Shem. Esau lost the right to Jacob. Reuben lost the right to Joseph. Manasseh lost that right when Jacob conferred it to Ephraim. Each man who lost the birthright did not lose the right to be ordained to the priesthood; [page 46] rather, he lost the right to preside as the presiding high priest in a patriarchal order. The scripture does not saw that Pharaoh could not hold the priesthood; it says that he could not have the “right to the priesthood” (Abr. 1:27) This right had been given to Shem, who in turn gave it to his successor in the patriarchal office.
Years after the right of the priesthood had been passed to Abraham, the Pharaohs were feigning claim to it from Noah. They did not merely claim priesthood; they claimed the right to preside over the priesthood. Pharaoh, the son of Egyptus, established a patriarchal government in Egpyt; but he was of the lineage by which he could not have the “right of the priesthood” or “the right of the firstborn,” which belonged to Shem and his posterity. In response to Pharaoh’s claims, Abraham states, “But the records of the fathers, even the patriarchs, concerning the right of the priesthood, the Lord my God preserved in mine own hands: (Abr. 1:31; italics mine). In other words, Abraham retained the right to preside over the priesthood.
So what do you think of Allred’s arguments? Is there any scriptural basis in support of the priesthood ban?
I don’t think that trying to interpret myth as literal history is helpful to anyone. Since I don’t believe that Noah and Ham lived, and since I believe more in the current scientific explanation of evolution and the origin of man, this all seems moot.
We should acknowledge that the priesthood ban was the result of Brigham Young being a bigot.
How do you really feel?
I have to agree with you though regarding Brigham Young, otherwise I would think Joseph Smith would have instituted the ban.
Not sure I would go as far as Noah and Ham never existing, but I certainly don’t believe in a global flood or that Noah would curse an entire lineage because his son saw him naked. That kind of stuff is ridiculous.
mcarp, I can understand your point of view, but I don’t think the majority of church members are going to quickly embrace science over religion. Some of them are more likely to embrace scripture, so I’m definitely open to arguing things scientifically and scripturally. I’d like to be able to convince by both methods.
Brigham Young is so interesting to me. I don’t know if you saw my first (almost comprehensive) post on the priesthood ban. In that post, Brigham is quoted in the early 1840’s as saying,
Then in 1846 he’s threatening to have the Lewis family killed for inter-racial marriage. Yes, I think he was a bigot, but earlier he was a bit progressive.
I have heard of Brigham’s early progressiveness too.
He certainly changed his tune and didn’t look back afterwards.
My opinion is that Joseph was extremely liberal for his day. Joseph was accepting of many radical ideas, such as giving blacks the priesthood. Brigham followed Joseph’s lead.
However, when Joseph died, church members weren’t as liberal. Southern missions brought southern converts, and many of them were slaveholders, not nearly as liberal as Joseph on the issue of race. Some of these slaveholders became apostle, such as Charles Rich. If you click on the link above in comment #3, it seems that inter-racial marriages were the cause of the ban.
I think there’s more to it than just these inter-racial marriages, but certainly these were extremely troubling events to Brigham.
Yay, I also believe the scriptures offer no basis for any lineal priesthood ban, and I’m delighted to see you publishing on this.
Even Abraham 1:25-27, which people have used as evidence (ha!) for the racial ban, the discussion of Pharoah being “cursed” with regard to the priesthood, makes the case that he was establishing a patriarchal government, but trying to claim a priesthood-enhanced right-to-rule through a matrilineal connection to Noah. This, like all other cases of who-can-be-ordained in the scriptures, can be completely accounted for by pointing to patrilineal inheritance.
mcarp, to some degree I think you’re missing the point. When you engage with someone who’s clinging to those horrible priesthood ban justifications, it’s really great that the scriptures won’t back up the justifications, quite the opposite.
The last year Gospel Doctrine covered Old Testament/Pearl of Great Price, no reading was assigned in the Noah/Ham/Canaan passages. If the teacher followed the manual’s assignments, no opportunity was provided for people to argue about priesthood ban justifications. This ends up being more effective than assigning the material, because a teacher who stands up and deconstructs the ban myth will probably be challenged in class by someone clinging to the old racist ways. Instead, the ban justification myths are dying by attrition.
Sure, I’d prefer one of our General Authorities to stand up in Conference and declare that there never was such a thing as a lineal priesthood curse. Failing that, this seems pretty effective.
Brigham Young made the following statements that I believe apply to this issue:
if you have these living oracles with you they are better to you than all that has ever been written from the days of Adam until now. – 30 March 1856 Salt Lake City Tabernacle; Leonard Arrington Papers 12-55-8, 2; Diary of Brigham Young; Manuscript Addresses of Brigham Young 3: 32-34; The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young: Volume 2, 1853 to 1856 (Kindle Locations 16694-16695). The Smith-Pettit Foundation. Kindle Edition.
Joseph Once told me to go to his own house to attend a meeting with him. He said that He would not go without me. I went and Hiram Preached upon the Bible Book of Mormon & Covenants and said we must take them as our guide alone. He preached vary lengthy untill he nearly wearied the people out. When he Closed Joseph told me to get up. I did so. I took the Books and piled them all up on top of Each other. I then said that I would not give the ashes of a rye straw for all those books for my salvation without the living oracles. I should follow and obey the living oracles for my salvation instead of any thing Els. When I got through Hyrum got up and made a Confession for not including the living Oracles. – 27 January 1860 Salt Lake City; Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, Volume 5, Page 429; The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young: Volume 3, 1857 to 1861 (Kindle Locations 11395-11399); The Smith-Pettit Foundation. Kindle Edition.
It was justly remarked this morning that each generation or dispensation needs revelation from heaven suited to their capacity and circumstances. But those gifts I have in my mind are suited to all without distinction. – 3 February 1861 Salt Lake City Tabernacle; Leonard Arrington Papers 12-56-1, 9; Diary of Brigham Young; The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young: Volume 3, 1857 to 1861 (Kindle Locations 18740-18742). The Smith-Pettit Foundation. Kindle Edition.
President Brigham Young called the attention of the congregation to the gifts and callings of God. Said it was justly remarked in the morning, that each generation and dispensation needed revelations and gifts suited to their condition and circumstances. – Deseret News 10: 400; Manuscript Addresses of Brigham Young 4: 72; The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young: Volume 3, 1857 to 1861 (Kindle Locations 18984- 18988). The Smith-Pettit Foundation. Kindle Edition.
At this meeting in Joseph’s house Hyrum worked hard. He took the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and the Book of Doctrine and Covenants and, said he, “that is the law which God has given us, by which to build up his Church and Kingdm in the last days, and everything more than these is of man and is not of God.” When he sat down Brother Joseph, with his hands still over his face and nudging me with his elbow said, “Brother Brigham, now come, get up.” I got up, and previous to getting up I had become pretty well charged with plenty of powder and ball, and my lungs were not so weak as they are now. I could talk then as to be heard a mile. I felt like a thousand lions. I took the books and laid them down one by one beginning with the Bible and said, “There lies the Bible, the Book of Mormon and the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, the revelations God has given through Joseph for the salvation of the people in the nineteenth century. Yet I would not give the ashes of a rye straw for these three books so far as they are efficacious for the salvation of any man that lives, without the living oracles of God. That was my text, and I think that before I got through the congregation was perfectly satisfied. I showed them that if we did not have the living oracles we were no better than the sectarian churches of the world. After I got through, Hyrum arose and made a handsome apology and confessed his wrong which he had committed in his excesses of zeal and asked pardon. – 8 October 1866 Salt Lake City Bowery Conference; Leonard Arrington Papers 12-56-4,2; Diary of Brigham Young; Manuscript Addresses of Brigham Young 5: 52-55; The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young: Volume 4, 1862 to 1867 (Kindle Locations 15892-15895). The Smith-Pettit Foundation. Kindle Edition.
Thank You, Kenneth C. Brown
“I don’t believe that LDS scripture allows for a restriction against blacks’ holding the priesthood.” It certainly did during Brigham Young’s Presidency. It hasn’t since September 30, 1978 with the exception that every candidate receives a worthiness interview prior to ordination that determines whether the candidate is worthy or not.
“Too many scriptures collide with those ideas for them to be valid.” The theology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints accepts the fact that blacks were cursed and could not hold the priesthood until the curse was lifted. Our doctrine is the Standard Works which includes the King James Version of the Bible, Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants of the Church, and Pearl of Great Price. These constitute the total doctrine of our Church.
Genesis 4:11-15 describes the curse upon Cain. Genesis 4:14 (King James Version) “Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me. 16 ¶ And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of eden.” The LDS scriptures indicate the mark on Cain was black skin. Pearl of Great Price/Moses 7:22 “And Enoch also beheld the residue of the people which were the sons of Adam; and they were a mixture of all the seed of Adam save it was the seed of Cain, for the seed of Cain were black, and had not place among them.”
Genesis 9:25 “And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.
26 And he said, Blessed be the Lord God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. 27 God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.”
Pearl of Great Price/Moses 7:8 For behold, the Lord shall curse the land with much heat, and the barrenness thereof shall go forth forever; and there was a blackness came upon all the children of Canaan, that they were despised among all people. Noah pronounced the curse on Canaan as the patriarch of the family.
So, what did Canaan do to deserve that curse. The scriptures are fairly clear. Leviticus 18:8 “The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness. Leviticus 20:11 And the man that lieth with his father’s wife hath uncovered his father’s nakedness: both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.” Canaan had sexual relations with his mother, Egyptus (which means “forbidden). Abraham 1:23 “The land of Egypt being first discovered by a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden;”
Those who descended from Ham could not hold priesthood. Abraham 1:25 “Now the first government of Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham, and it was after the manner of the government of Ham, which was patriarchal.
26 Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and judged his people wisely and justly all his days, seeking earnestly to imitate that order established by the fathers in the first generations, in the days of the first patriarchal reign, even in the reign of Adam, and also of Noah, his father, who blessed him with the blessings of the earth, and with the blessings of wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood.” Egyptus (forbidden) may have been a descendant of Cain. Apparently Noah cursed Ham because of the troubling relations within his family between Canaan and Egyptus, his mother, and Ham’s wife!
I’ve been a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for 40 years. Prior to that I was raised in the Southern Baptist Church and remained for 30 years. Thank you for the opportunity to comment. God bless you!
Clearly the church’s priesthood essay of a disavowal of racist teachings didn’t take with you. That’s truly sad. Racist doctrines need a public repudiation. I know what church leaders taught. It was, and is wrong and ungodly teachings of men not God.